Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Collaboration and License Agreements

Collaboration and License Agreements
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2016
Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]  
Collaboration and License Agreements

5. Collaboration and License Agreements

Kowa Pharmaceuticals America, Inc.

On December 30, 2016, the Company entered into a license agreement with Kowa Pharmaceuticals America, Inc. (“Kowa”). Pursuant to the license agreement, the Company granted to Kowa an exclusive license, and right to sublicense, certain patent rights and technology related to arhalofenate. Kowa will have exclusive rights to, among other things, develop, use, manufacture, sell and otherwise exploit the licensed technology in the United States (including all possessions and territories). At Kowa’s option, the Company may also facilitate the placement of arhalofenate product manufacturing orders under the terms of the Company’s existing contract manufacturing agreements. In addition, the Company will complete specified in-process stability testing and non-clinical development services and will participate on a Joint Advisory Committee (“JAC”). Finally, the Company will transfer to Kowa certain arhalofenate product on hand.

Under the license agreement, Kowa agreed to pay the Company a non-refundable up-front payment of $5 million upon contract execution which was subsequently received in mid-January 2017. The Company is also eligible to receive up to $200 million in contingent payments based upon either the initiation or achievement of specified development and sales milestones. Finally, the Company will receive tiered, double digit royalties on any product sales and a percentage of any revenue earned by Kowa from sublicensing.


The Company identified the following three performance deliverables under the license agreement: 1) transfer of intellectual property rights, inclusive of the related technology know-how conveyance and contract manufacturing rights and privileges (“license and know-how”), 2) the obligation to perform specific ongoing research and non-clinical development services, and 3) the delivery of arhalofenate product on hand. The Company’s participation on the JAC was not determined to be a deliverable because of the Company’s ability to elect to terminate its participation. The Company concluded that the license, the know-how and contract manufacturing rights and privileges together represent a single deliverable, and therefore together should be accounted for as a single unit of accounting. The research and development services and delivery of arhalofenate product each also represent separate deliverables, and therefore each should be accounted for as separate units of accounting. There was no separate consideration identified in the agreement for the deliverables and there was no right of return under the agreement.

The Company considered the provisions of the multiple-element arrangement guidance in determining whether the deliverables outlined above have standalone value. The transfer of license and know-how has standalone value separate from the research and development services and delivery of arhalofenate product, as the agreement allows Kowa to sublicense its rights to the acquired license to a third party. Further, the Company believes that Kowa has research and development expertise with compounds similar to those licensed under the agreement, and the Company has also granted Kowa the rights to either order arhalofenate product from the Company’s existing contract manufacturers, or to enter into arrangements with other third parties to develop and manufacture arhalofenate product, thereby allowing Kowa to realize the value of the license and know-how. The license and know-how revenue will be recognized upon the substantial completion of the transfer of know-how. The research and development services will be recognized as revenue over the estimated period services are delivered. The arhalofenate product will be recognized as revenue upon delivery.

As of December 31, 2016, no revenue had been recognized as the up-front payment had not yet been received and delivery had not yet occurred for the license and know-how, research and development services, or the arhalofenate product on hand.

The Company determined the future contingent payments related to the development activities do not meet the definition of a milestone. Under current revenue recognition rules, these amounts will be allocated to the Kowa arrangements’ three identified units of accounting when received and recognized as revenue based on the revenue recognition policy for those respective units of accounting. The future contingent payments related to the U.S. sales milestones are recognized upon achievement of the specific milestones. As of December 31, 2016, none of these contingent amounts had been received or recognized as revenue.

Janssen Pharmaceutical NV and Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

In June 2006, the Company entered into an exclusive worldwide, royalty-bearing license to seladelpar and certain other PPARd compounds (the “PPARd Products”) with Janssen Pharmaceutical NV (Janssen NV), with the right to grant sublicenses to third parties to make, use and sell such PPARd Products. Under the terms of the agreement, the Company has full control and responsibility over the research, development and registration of any PPARd Products and is required to use diligent efforts to conduct all such activities. Janssen NV has the sole responsibility for the preparation, filing, prosecution, maintenance of, and defense of the patents with respect to, the PPARdProducts. Janssen NV has a right of first negotiation under the agreement to license a particular PPARd Product from the Company in the event that the Company elects to seek a third party corporate partner for the research, development, promotion, and/or commercialization of such PPARd Products. Under the terms of the agreement Janssen NV is entitled to receive up to an 8% royalty on net sales of PPARd Products.

In June 2010, the Company entered into two development and license agreements with Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Janssen), a subsidiary of Johnson and Johnson, to further develop and discover undisclosed metabolic disease target agonists for the treatment of T2DM and other disorders and received a one-time nonrefundable technology access fee related to the agreements. The Company received a termination notice from Janssen, effectively ending these development and licensing agreements in early April 2015. In December 2015, the Company exercised an option pursuant to the terms of one of the original agreements to continue work to research, develop and commercialize compounds with activity against an undisclosed metabolic disease target. Janssen granted the Company an exclusive, worldwide license (with rights to sublicense) under the Janssen know-how and patents to research, develop, make, have made, use, offer for sale and sell such compounds. The Company has full control and responsibility over the research, development and registration of any products developed and/or discovered from the metabolic disease target and is required to use diligent efforts to conduct all such activities.

DiaTex, Inc.

In June 1998, the Company entered into a license agreement with DiaTex, Inc. (DiaTex) relating to products containing halofenate, its enantiomers, derivatives, and analogs (the licensed products). The license agreement provides that DiaTex and the Company are joint owners of all of the patents and patent applications covering the licensed products and methods of producing or using such compounds, as well as certain other know-how (the covered IP). As part of the license agreement, the Company received an exclusive worldwide license, including as to DiaTex, to use the covered IP to develop and commercialize the licensed products. The Company also retained the right to sub-license the covered IP. The license agreement contains a $2,000 per month license fee as well as a requirement to make additional payments for development achievements and royalty payments on any sales of licensed products. DiaTex is entitled to up to $0.8 million for the future development of arhalofenate, as well as royalty payments on commercial sales of products containing arhalofenate. No development payments were made or due as of and for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015 and no royalties have been paid to date. In December 2016, the agreement was amended by the parties to change the timing of a specified development milestone.